Singular and plural in Nepali

The plural of nouns is done by adding the suffix "- haru" at the end of the word. The adjectives do not mark the plural in the spoken language. On the other hand, in the written language, the adjectives change their endings "-a" to mark the plural character. Also note that in nepali, the plural marker is omitted when:

· The plural nature of the word is clear (eg: when a number or words as "many, much, very")

· When the plural character refers to a generality (eg: I love traveling in THE MOUNTAINS)

When the suffix "- haru" is affixed to a noun that can not be effective, it implies the idea of "and that sort of thing". Thus the word "bhat - rice" may be called "bhatharu - rice and anything else to eat".

It is also possible to add the suffix « -haru » to proper names. In such a case, it implies the idea of "and his family." Ex: "ranjit - Ranjit" becomes "ranjitharu - Ranjit and all the other".

Regarding verbs, conjugation has endings evoking the plural nature of the action. For example, if the verb "chha" becomes "chhan" and « ho » becomes « hun ».

The plural mark “- hāru (हरू):” the plural is formed by using the suffix “hāru -x?_. ” As such, “kitaab (किताब) – book” (singular) becomes “kitaabhāru (किताबहरू)–- the books” (plural). The plural mark is always placed between the word (also called substantive) and the postposition, if there is one. If we want to add the postposition “-maa” meaning “in, on” we will say “kitaabhāru-maa कितावहरूमा – in the books.” It should be noted that the plural for non-human terms (books, jobs, shops etc.) will be translated as singular in Nepalese if they express something general (e.g. “I love books – mālaï kitaab mān pārchā dnfO{ lstfa dgk5{”) or if they are preceded by a number or word which shows the plural of the substantive (e.g., “I have three brothers – mero tin bhaï-daï chhā मेरो तीनजना भाइ-दाइ छ”).

a) raajaa राजा king raajaahāru राजाहरू kings

b) maanche मान्छे person maanchehāru मान्छेहरू persons

c) kitaab किताब book kitaabhāru किताबहरू books

d) pāsāl पसल shop pāsālhāru पसलहरू shops

e) bhāïsi भैँसी buffalo bhāïsihāru भैँसीहरू buffalos

f) jholaa झोलाsuitcase jholaahāru झोलाहरू suitcases

g) chhāraa चरा bird chhāraahāru चराहरू birds

h) des देश country deshāru देशहरू countries

i) gaaũ गाँउ village gaaũhāru गाउँहरू villages

j) shāhār शहर city shāhārhāru शहरहरू cities

Also note that the words “tyo – this” and “yo – that” become “yi” and “tyi” in their plural forms. We also remind that the adjectives never use the plural mark.